Lately, words like "virus" and especially "coronavirus" have entered our daily lives. But what exactly is a virus? It is a pathogen that infects the cells of an organism by incorporating its genome into the genetic material of its host. Through the control of cellular mechanisms, the virus multiplies, thus creating problems in the body.
More than 5,000 types of viruses are recorded, such as the common cold, which usually has mild symptoms and affects millions of people worldwide. Also deadly viruses such as diphtheria, hepatitis A, B, C, influenza, parotitis, conjunctivitis have occasionally caused thousands of deaths and worsened living conditions. In addition, chronic inflammation in organs such as Epstein-Barr virus infection of the liver are carcinogenic factors. The encouraging thing, however, is that many previously dangerous viruses, etc. have been effectively treated with vaccines with the result that a large part of the population has acquired immunity. A typical example is seasonal flu, for which doctors recommend annual vaccination, especially in high-risk groups (people with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, etc.).
Regarding the big issue of our time, SARS COV-2 is a virus that appeared at the end of 2019 in China. The initial letters of its name mean severe acute respiratory syndrome type 2, and it should be noted that the first SARS virus occurred in 2002-2003 in China, while in 2012–13 MERS (Middle East Respiratory) Syndrome) had caused a large number of cases in the Middle East. The corona viruses were named this way because of their characteristic shape in the electron microscope, where their shell looks like a crown.
SARS-COV2 causes COVID19 disease where it affects respiratory cells. Once the virus enters the upper respiratory tract, it uses its protein spikes to bind to the cell. The virus now controls the cell. The genetic material it uses is RNA (ribonucleic acid), which is protected by a protein shell. RNA plays an important role in the process of converting genetic code from DNA to protein products. So when the virus makes many copies in the body, it causes symptoms, which can lead to significant health complications.