The observations of astronomers in the Universe have shown that we do not see matter in its entirety, only 5%. 68% is attributed to the dark energy due to the expansion of the Universe, while 27% is made up of dark matter, which does not interact with electromagnetic radiation. The astronomers came to this conclusion using supernova type 1a as the standard wax, the accelerating expansion of the Universe, but also the phenomenon of the gravitational lens, in order to calculate the mass of galactic clusters and found that there is much more matter directly in the Universe observable.
In December 2019, the Chinese authorities notified the world that a virus was spreading through their communities. In the following months it spread to other countries with cases doubling within days. It has triggered lockdowns in dozens of nations, and the disease continues to spread. This disease is called COVID-19 (most commonly known as coronavirus). COVID-19 is caused by SARS-COV-2 or “severely acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2” (because it’s genetically similar to the SARS CORONAVIRUS which was responsible for the SARS outbreak in 2002).
December of 2019, in Wuhan, a large metropolitan area inside China's Hubei province, an epidemic of unexplained low respiratory infections seemed to be emerging. On December 31, cases where reported to the WHO country office in China. The first cases were dubbed cases of "pneumonia of unknown etiology.” Soon after , the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted a thorough outbreak investigation and eventually discovered that the disease may be attributed to a novel coronavirus belonging to the coronavirus family (CoV) and that it’s most likely origin was the Wuhan seafood market where an animal to human transmission most probably occurred (Cascella, 2020). By January 20, 2020 the first case had reported in the US and on January 30, 2020 the WHO declared the outbreak to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (CNN, 2020). Only a few weeks later on February 11, 2020 the WHO Director-General, announced that the disease caused by the virus would be named “COVID-19," as an acronym for “Coronavirus Disease 2019” and at that point the virus has began spreading around the globe as countries began taking their first measures. Additionally it seemed that virus had a more severe impact on elders and people with compromised immune systems, this was worrying as some people rained asymptomatic and continued to spread the virus without knowledge of doing so (Cascella, 2020). At this point, April 19, 2020, around 5 months after the initial reported cases, more than 2 million people around the globe have contracted the novel coronavirus while health care systems are struggling to cope with the huge numbers of patients admitted to hospitals eventually leading to an increased mortality rate (WHO, "COVID-19 situation reports", 2020). The situation is complicated and may be analyzed from many different perspectives and fields as the outbreak has temporarily changed the dynamics of how society operates. This essay will cover the basic biochemical processes involved in the transmission and infection associated with COVID-19 along with symptoms, complications, and treatment.
As the pandemic is ongoing scientists try to find conclusive answers on where the pandemic came from and how it spilled over to humans. As the answers are pieced together there seems to be causality in fields that escape our attention while they really shouldn’t.
A cluster of unidentified cases of pneumonia has been recorded in Wuhan, China in late December 2019 and a few days later, it established the causative agent of the enigmatic pneumonia as a novel coronavirus. The causative infection is briefly referred to as extreme acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 and the resulting infectious illness is referred to as Coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19. The COVID-19 outbreak has spread across China and around the world, infecting more than 2.5 million people and killing almost 171,796 of the infected ones. COVID-19 epidemic has become a global health threat, keeping people all over the world self-isolating for almost 2 months.
The word around us these days is not as it used to be, most of the businesses are inactive and public transportation is limited. These are just two of the many results caused by the pandemic of Covid-19, a virus which was initially identified in December 2019 in Wuhan. After the outbreak of this new virus, the entire scientific community is in a constant search for both its origin and possible treatments.
Coronavirus is not actually a new virus like everybody thinks. It was discovered in the 1930s when an intense respiratory disease of tamed chickens were OK so demonstrated to be brought about by an bronchitis infection (IBV). In the 1940s, two more animals coronaviruses, mouse hepatitis virus or else MHV and transmissible gastroenteritis virus which is also as TGEV. Those two animals were isolated. Then, in the 1960s coronaviruses were discoverd in humans. The earliest studies were from people with normal cold, which were later named as human coronavirus. But what is coronavirus? Coronavirus is a group of connected viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. This virus can appear as a common flu or a very severe respiratory sydrome (SARS). In 2019, a new coronavirus was identified as the cause of a disease outbreak in China that originated in China (Mayo Clinic, 2020). This new kind of virus is called COVID-19.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus2 (SARS-CoV-2) or Coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease of primarily the human respiratory tract caused by the novel corona virus. The virus is believed to be of zoonotic origin and it can easily be transmissible between humans via airborne droplets. Through mathematical models the virus yields a basic reproduction number (R0) of approximately 2 to 2.5 . The incubation time of the virus is between 1 and 14 days, the hospitalization rate is 19% and the fatality rate is 1% to 3.4%. More recent studies conclude that the true R0 value is closer to 7 .